A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. They were designated fast convoys, that is, made up of ships that could make 9-13 knots. On the vast oceans of the Atlantic and the Pacific, thousands of German and Allied convoys faced a daily torment, not knowing whether their latest trip would be their last. The U.S. Navy Fought Nazi Germany In The Atlantic Before America Entered World War II. South Atlantic Convoys. There were also fights between the Bermudian men and servicemen over women. The equation of time and attrition was less than 1% attrition versus a 25% increase in the average round trip (equivalent to having 20% fewer ships) for almost 16,700 sailings in 1134 convoys. List of World War II Convoys - South Atlantic Convoys. ", http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/displaycataloguedetails.asp?CATID=-5742223&CATLN=7&Highlight=&FullDetails=False, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/HX_convoys?oldid=2505225, Dan van der Vat : The Atlantic Campaign (1988). Gibraltar convoy routes crossed U-boat transit routes from French Atlantic ports and were within range of Axis maritime patrol aircraft making these convoys vulnerable to observation and interception by bombers, submarines, and surface warships during the Battle of the … The 345 OB convoys lost a total of 213 ships. Fast military convoy with war materials for Middle East: A.S. America - Freetown: From March 1942, military convoys: A.T. New York - UK: From March 1942, military convoys: B.A. 6 For more on convoy and routing, visit the NHHC Library Online Reading room. Convoy JW 56B was an Arctic convoy sent from Great Britain by the Western Allies to aid the Soviet Union during World War II. Of the 40 convoys during the campaign which lost more than 6 ships, 5 were in the HX series. The Arctic convoys of World War II were oceangoing convoys which sailed from the United Kingdom, Iceland, and North America to northern ports in the Soviet Union – primarily Arkhangelsk (Archangel) and Murmansk in Russia. Convoy Battles of World War II occurred when convoys of cargo ships assembled for mutual defense, and were attacked by enemy submarines, surface ships, and/or aircraft. A total of 377 convoys ran during the campaign, conveying a total of approximately 20,000 ships. Most were in the North Atlantic from 1939 to 1943, and involved attacks by U-Boat wolfpacks. ISBN (Canada) 1 55125 033 0 . A convoy of merchant ships protected by airplanes en route to Cape Town during World War II. The simulated, World War II-style convoy underscored the importance of sealift to U.S. war plans, as well as the shortage of naval escorts that has incited a minor panic among military planners. On the eve of World War II, with its emphasis on antisubmarine operations against German U-boats in the North Atlantic, the U.S. Navy’s destroyer force consisted mainly of Fletcher-, … They absorbed the BHX convoys from Bermuda en route. Later, after the United States had entered the war the HX convoys began at New York. "According to our [U. S. National Archives] records, in 1951 the Department of the Army destroyed all passenger lists, manifests, logs of vessels, and troop movement files of United States Army Transports for World War II." ISBN (UK) 1 86176 147 3. Aden - Kilindini - Durban: From Sept' 1943: A.P. Amongst the latter was Major-General Glyn Charles Anglim Gilbert, Bermuda's highest ranking soldier. Originally, convoys of merchant ships were formed as a protection against pirates. Book review: Of the many convoys that traversed northern seas ferrying goods to Soviet ports during World War II, none met a fate as awful as the one numbered PQ-17. 1942: Atlantic Convoys Following United States' entry into World War II, Germany decided to undertake Operation Drumbeat (Paukenschlag), which was the initial wave of German U-boats meant for a fast and suprise attack on the United States east coast and Allied shipping. With German U-Boats and Allied Cruisers patrolling the seas, many thousands aboard The U.S. Navy engaged in a shooting war with the Kriegsmarine before official U.S. entry into World War II. Bombay - Aden/Red Sea As during the Great War, Bermuda sent many of her sons overseas, some of course never to return. They absorbed the BHX convoys from Bermuda en route. HX convoys were organized at the beginning of the Atlantic campaign and ran without major changes until the end, the longest continuous series of the war. A parallel series of slow convoys, the SC series, was run for ships making 8 knots or less, while ships making more than 13 knots sailed independently, until 14-knot CU convoys were organized in late 1943. Forgotten Sacrifice: The Arctic Convoys of World War II Michael Walling. List of World War II convoys provides additional information on a regional basis. X: The Atlantic Battle Won, May 1943-1945 (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1956), 24-25; Farago, Tenth Fleet, 163–216. This marked the beginning of a dangerous phase of the Second World War, dubbed the Battle of the Atlantic by Winston Churchill. During World War II, between 1941 and 1945, 78 Allied Arctic convoys brought more than 4 million tons of provisions and munitions to the U.S.S.R. 38 convoys were attacked (about 10%), resulting in losses of As fast convoys they were less vulnerable to U-boat attack than the slow convoys, but they still witnessed some of the great convoy battles of the war. During World War I and World War II, the practice was revived to protect Allied and neutral merchant shipping against German surface raiders and submarines. North Atlantic Convoys. The Islands naval bases once again became a hub for convoy and anti-submarine operations. World War II Convoys JW-54A and RA-55A Posted on November 11, 2006 by Steve As part of the US Naval Armed Guard, my father served on the Liberty Ship the S. S. Daniel Drake on two convoys as part of the Murmansk Run, delivering war supplies to the Eastern Front. From July to Sept' 1942. Often, a … Naval Operations in World War II, Vol. The HX convoys were a series of North Atlantic convoys which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II. Rooms and apartments were rented to military personnel. HX-1 set sail on September 16. List of Allied convoys during World War II by region; List of World War II convoys; M Mid-Ocean Escort Force; O Convoy OA 178; Convoy OB 318; Convoy OB 293; Convoy OG 69; Convoy OG 71; Convoy OG 82; ON convoys; Convoy ON 67; Convoy ON 122; Convoy ON 144; Convoy ON 207; Convoy ON 113; Convoy ON 115; Convoy ON 127; Convoy ON 153; But over time the connections became stronger than the hostilities. List of World War II Convoys - North Atlantic Convoys. July to December: The records of ships used to carry troops to their theaters of operations were destroyed intentionally in 1951. Convoy Routing Codes used in World War II. For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). Number of Convoys Notes; AT: United States to British Isles: March 1942: 1945: troopships: BHX: Bermuda to Liverpool: May 1940: March 1941: 97 (# 41-137) sailed from Bermuda and merged with same number HX convoy at sea: CK: Charleston, South Carolina to British Isles: 1944: 1944: rarely used: CT: British Isles to Canada: 1941: 1941: troopships: CU: Caribbean (later New York City) to Liverpool Convoy, vessels sailing under the protection of an armed escort. Bermuda’s contribution to the war effort was out of all proportion to its geographical size. All ships arrived safely. ISBN 0-340-37751-8, Arnold Hague : The Allied Convoy System 1939-1945 (2000). Convoy battles also occurred in the Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and western Pacific Ocean . The rental market started to boom once the base agreement came into action. The HX convoys were a series of North Atlantic convoys which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II. 4 convoys only: A.K.D. The HX designation also perpetuated a similar series that ran in World War I, between 1917 and 1918. Images pertain to Allied merchant ship crewmembers and vessels damaged, or sunk, by German U-boats during 1942. Contents. This is a List of Allied convoys during World War II by region. They were east-bound convoys and originated in Halifax, Nova Scotia from where they sailed to ports in the United Kingdom. Convoy Routing Codes World War II AB-- Aden to Bombay ABF-- Aden to Bombay, Fast AC-- Alexandria to Cyrenaica (1941) AG-- Alexandria to Greece (1941) ... BHX-- Bermuda Joiner to HX BK-- Bombay to Karachi BK-- … Among the best known HX convoy battles were: Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Full listing of ships sailing in HX convoys, "Item details ADM 199/2192/25—Convoy Lists—Convoy number HXS300 from Halifax (later New York) to UK. eg: ON=Liverpool to New York, fast. Of these, 53 were lost in convoy, 30 were stragglers and 130 were losses out of convoy. 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